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xl                                   EXTINCT PECORINES                               329
jincoilns (or Hyopotamit&9 as it has been called) is also Oiigo-
eene ia range, and its remains have been found in the same
countries as have those of jinthrcLcothiriiim, Both genera are
indeed closely allied. Jineodus seems to be a more slightly-
built creature. The skull looks weaker^ "but presents much the
same features of organisation. In A. velaunus, a species found in
French rocks, a metacacpal of digit I. was present in the manus,
while -4. brachyrkyncJnts had a completely five-fingered nianus.
The Miocene genus Merycopotavnus (from the lower layers of
the Siwalik formation in India) is more distinctly selenodont
than the forms already discussed. On this ground it has been
placed in a separate sub-family. As, however,, in other respects
it does not depart from the Anthracotherian type of structure, this
proceeding seems to be hardly necessary. There are two species
known, of which one, J£ namts, is, as its name denotes, a dwarf
ft »iin.
Fam. Caenotheriidae. — While the last family consisted
of animals rather more akin to the Pigs, the present is more
Pecorine in its characters. The molars are selenodont; but as in
the Tragulidae the premolars are more of the nature of cutting
teeth. The dentition, like that of so many of these early
Ungulates, is complete, and the canines are not prominent. The
feet are four-toed, the lateral toes not reaching the ground.
The principal genus is the Eocene and Miocene Caenotheriunt.
Of this genus there were a considerable number of species all
European in range, and of small size-—not- more than a foot or so
in length. Their small size is suggestive of the Chevrotains.
In the skull the orbital cavity is nearly or quite surrounded
"by bone, and the tympanic tralla is large and inflated. A
common feature of Artiodactyles, a failure of the nasals and
maxillae to meet at the side of the face, is to be seen in this
ancient forerunner of the Pecora.
Plesiomeryx* also European., and from the same geological
horizon, is a very closely allied form.
fmn. XiphO'dontida©. — This family consists of slender,
small Artiodactyles which are, like the Caenotheriidae, related
to the Pecora. They are confined in their range to Europe.
The type genus Xiphodon has selenodont molars and elon-
gated, slender, cutting premolars. The dentition was complete
and the canines not highly developed. Like